Document Type : Research Paper


1 M.Sc. of Sport Medicine and Health, Islamic Azad University, Karaj Branch

2 Assistant Perofessor of Sport Rehabilitation and Health, Shahid Beheshti University

3 Assistant Professor of Sport Medicine and Health, Sport Sciences Research Institute


The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of eight weeks of Core stability training on Motor performance of elite Goalball players. Twenty-six elite Goalball players participated in this study. Participants randomly divided into two groups, experimental (n=13) (9 male, 4 female) and control (n=13) (9 male, 4 female) groups. Medicine ball throw distance, throw velocity of the goalball’s ball, Single-leg Triple Hop, Flamingo Balance Test and Y balance test was used for evaluation. Control group received conventional exercise while Study group received 8 weeks Core stability exercises using a Swiss ball exercises. Core stability exercise was conducted three days a week. Both groups before and after the eight weeks of training, participated in Functional test. Data were analyzed using ANCOVA in the 0.05 significant level. Analysis of covariance showed that there is a significant difference in the average adjusted static balance group core stability exercises (M=3.20) and control (2.35) in elite athletes (F (1,23)=33.66 ,P=0.000, η2=0.59). Also there was a significant difference in average adjusted dynamic balance between core stability training (M=79.8) and control groups (M=75.4) in elite athletes (F(1,23)=14.04 ,P=0.000, η2=0.38). Also, there was significant differences between adjusted mean between throw velocity, medicine ball forward throws distances and medicine ball backward throw distances group core stability exercises and control of elite athletes (P=0.001). Result showed there is positive effect of core stability training on motor performance of Goalball players. It is recommended that core stability exercises be used as an effective way to enhance performance and prevention from injury.


Main Subjects

1. Pascolini D, Mariotti SP. Global estimates of visual impairment: 2010. Br J Ophthalmoly. 2012; 1;96(5):614-8.
2. Velázquez R. Wearable assistive devices for the blind. InWearable and autonomous biomedical devices and systems for smart environment 2010 (pp. 331-49). Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
3. Fortin M, Voss P, Lassonde M, Lepore F. Sensory loss and brain reorganization. Med Sci. 2007;23(11):917-22.
4. Cheng K. A systematic perspective of postural control [thesis]. [Toronto]: University of Toronto; 2004.
5. Paul M, Biswas SK, Sandhu JS. Role of sports vision and eye hand coordination training in performance of table tennis players. Braz. J.Biomotricity. 2011;5(2):106-16.
6. Berencsi A, Ishihara M, Imanaka K. The functional role of central and peripheral vision in the control of posture. Hum Mov Sci 2005;24(5):689-709.
7. Bhambhani Y. Overview of physical training in athletes with disabilities: Focus on long term athlete development [thesis]. [Alberta]: University of Alberta; 2010.
8. Soares AV, Oliveira CSRd, Knabben RJ, Domenech SC, Junior B, Gomes N. Postural control in blind subjects. Einstein (São Paulo). 2011:9(4):470-6.
9. Çolak T, Bamaç B, Aydin M, Meriç B, Özbek A. Physical fitness levels of blind and visually impaired goalball team players. Isokinet Exerc Sci. 2004;12(4):247-52.
10. Karakaya İÇ, Aki E, Ergun N. Physical fitness of visually impaired adolescent goalball players. Percept Mot Skills . 2009;108(1):129-36.
11. Molik B, Morgulec-Adamowicz N, Kosmol A, Perkowski K, Bednarczuk G, Skowroński W, et al. Game Performance Evaluation in Male Goalball Players. J HUM KINET. 2015;48(1):43-51.
12. Hibbs AE, Thompson KG, French D, Wrigley A, Spears I. Optimizing performance by improving core stability and core strength. Sports med. 2008;38(12):995-1008.
13. El-Kerdi A. Effects of isolated core stability training on standing static postural control, recovery of standing postural control and kicking velocity in soccer athletes. [dissertation]. [New Jersey]: Seton Hall University; 2016. 194p.
14. Tantawi SS. Effect of core stability training on some physical variables and the performance level of the compulsory kata for karate players. World J Sports Sci. 2011;5(4):288-96.
15. Nesser TW, Huxel KC, Tincher JL, Okada T. The relationship between core stability and performance in division I football players. J Strength Cond Res. 2008;22(6):1750-4.
16. Hodges PW, Richardson CA. Contraction of the abdominal muscles associated with movement of the lower limb. Physical therapy. 1997;77(2):132-42.
17. Samson KM. The effects of a five-week core stabilization-training program on dynamic balance in tennis athletes. [dissertation]. [Virginia]: West Virginia University; 2005. 215p.
18. Kibler WB, Press J, Sciascia A. The role of core stability in athletic function. Sports med. 2006;36(3):189-98.
19. Stanton R, Reaburn PR, Humphries B. The effect of short-term Swiss ball training on core stability and running economy. J Strength Cond Res. 2004;18(3):522-8.
20. Kahle NL. The effects of core stability training on balance testing in young, healthy adults. [dissertation]. [Toledo]: University of Toledo; 2009.
21. Sekendiz B, Cug M, Korkusuz F. Effects of Swiss-ball core strength training on strength, endurance, flexibility, and balance in sedentary women. J Strength Cond Res. 2010;24(11):3032-40.
22. Miller SJ. A Biomechanical Analysis of the Anterior Balance Reach Test. Pennsylvania: Pennsylvania State University; 2001.
23. Rajabi R, Samadi H. Corrective exercise laboratory. Tehran: University of Tehran Press; 2012.
24. Noyes FR, Barber SD, Mangine RE. Abnormal lower limb symmetry determined by function hop tests after anterior cruciate ligament rupture. AM J SPORT MED. 1991;19(5):513-8.
25. Stockbrugger BA, Haennel RG. Validity and reliability of a medicine ball explosive power test. J Strength Cond Res. 2001;15(4):431-8.
26. Schmidt RA, Lee T. Motor control and learning. 5th ed. Champaign: Human kinetics; 2005.
27. Corna S, Tarantola J, Nardone A, Giordano A, Schieppati M. Standing on a continuously moving platform: Is body inertia counteracted or exploited? Exp Brain Res. 1999;124(3):331-41.
28. Salari A, Sahebozamani M, Daneshmandi H. The effect of core stability training program on balance in blind female athletes. J Kerman University of Med Sciences. 2013;20(6):585-95.
29. Sadeghi S, Mahdavinejad R, Kamali A. Effectiveness of core stabilization exercises on balance and gait speed of blind students. J Sport Rehabil . 2016;4(7):21-30.
30. Clark M, Fater D, Reuteman P. Core (trunk) stabilization and its importance for closed kinetic chain rehabilitation. Orthop. Clin. North Am. 2000;9(2):119-36.
31. saki f, Baghban m. Relationship between core stability muscle endurance and static and dynamic balance in basketball players. Journal of Sport Biomechanics. 2016;1(3):33-41.
32. Okada T, Huxel KC, Nesser TW. Relationship between core stability, functional movement, and performance. J Strength Cond Res. 2011;25(1):252-61.
33. Hosseini SS, Karimi A, Rostamkhany H. The effect of strength and core stabilization training on physical fitness factors among elderly people. World Appl Sci J. 2012;16(4):479-84.
34. Zazulak BT, Hewett TE, Reeves NP, Goldberg B, Cholewicki J. Deficits in neuromuscular control of the trunk predict knee injury risk a prospective biomechanical-epidemiologic study. AM J SPORT MED. 2007;35(7):1123-30.