Document Type : Research Paper
phd student of sport biomechanics, kharazmi university
Member of Iran University of Science & Technology, Department of physical education and sport sciences, Tehran, Iran
The aim of this study was to compare the lower extremity stiffness and its variability between three different forms of hopping test. 30 young healthy and physically active students performed three different forms of hopping, bilateral, unilateral, on dominant leg and unilateral on non-dominant leg with a control strategy (frequency 2.2 Hz) to determine the lower extremity stiffness variables. Different forms of hopping were compared by one way ANOVA repeated measure test. The research findings indicated that lower extremity stiffness depends on the form of hopping test. The results also showed less variability of unilateral stiffness than bilateral stiffness, which may be indicate that unilateral hopping has simpler motion pattern. Therefore, it seems better to use unilateral hopping test as a standard test to determine lower extremity stiffness in healthy subjects rather than bilateral hopping test.
- Butler RJ, Crowell HP, Davis IMC. Lower extremity stiffness: Implications for performance and injury. Clin Biomech. 2003;18(6):511-7.
- Hobara H, Tominaga S, Umezawa S, Iwashita K, Okino A, Saito T, et al. Leg stiffness and sprint ability in amputee sprinters. J Prosthet Orthot Int. 2012;36(3):312‐7.
- Chelly SM, Denis C. Leg power and hopping stiffness: relationship with sprint running performance. Med and Sci in Sports and Exerc. 2001;33(2):326‐33.
- Pruyn EC, Watsford M, Murphy A. The relationship between lower‐body stiffness and dynamic performance. Appl Physiol Nutr Me. 2014;39(10):1144‐50.
- Brughelli M, Cronin J. A review of research on the mechanical stiffness in running and jumping: methodology and implications. Scand J Med Sci Spor. 2008;18(4):417-26.
- Ashrostaghi M, Sadeghi H, Shirzad A. The relationship of mechanical stiffness during hopping test with performance and injury risk factors of lower extremity in selected fundamental movement skills [Unpublished doctoral dissertation]: [Tehran]. Kharazmi University; 2015. (In Persian).
- Lamontagne M, Kennedy MJ. The biomechanics of vertical hopping: A review. Res Sports Med. 2013;21(4):380‐94.
- Watsford ML, Murphy AJ, McLachlan KA, Bryant AL, Cameron ML, Crossley KM, et al. A prospective study of the relationship between lower body stiffness and hamstring injury in professional Australian rules footballers. American J Sports Med. 2010;38(10):2058-64.
- Maquirriain J. Leg stiffness changes in athletes with Achilles tendinopathy. Inter J Sports Med. 2012;33(07):567-71.
- Niu W, Wang Y, He Y, Fan Y, Zhao Q. Kinematics, kinetics, and electromyogram of ankle during drop landing: A comparison between dominant and non-dominant limb. Hum Movement Sci. 2011; 30:614–623.
- Sadeghi H, Allard P, Prince F, Labelle H. Symmetry and limb dominance in able-bodied gait: A review. Gait Post. 2000; 12:34–45.
- Brauner T, Sterzing T, Wulf M, Horstmann T. Leg stiffness: Comparison between unilateral and bilateral hopping tasks. Hum Movement Sci. 2014; 33:263-72.
- Maloney SJ, Fletcher IM, Richards J. A comparison of methods to determine bilateral asymmetries in vertical leg stiffness. Journal of Sports Sciences. 2016;34(9):829-35.
- Ashrostaghi M, Sadeghi H, Shirzad A. The analysis of spring-like behavior of human body during unilateral and bilateral hopping tests with different strategies. Res Sports Rehab. 2017;4(8):21-9. (In Persian).
- Farley C, Morgenroth, D. Leg stiffness primarily depends on ankle stiffness during human hopping. J Biomech. 1999;32(3):267-73.
- Winter DA. Biomechanics and motor control of human movement. 4th ed. Hoboken, New Jersey, USA: John Wiley & Sons; 2009. p. 86.
- McMahon TA, Cheng GC. The mechanics of running:How does stiffness couple with speed? J Biomech. 1990;23:65-78.
- Granata K, Padua D, Wilson S. Gender differences in active musculoskeletal stiffness. Part II. Quantification of leg stiffness during functional hopping tasks. J Electromyogr Kinesiol. 2002;12(2):127-35.
- Nikooyan AA, Zadpoor AA. Mass-spring-damper modelling of the human body to study running and hopping: An overview. Proceed Instit Mechanic Eng. Part H. 2011;225(12):1121–35.
- Jones PA, Bampouras TM. A comparison of isokinetic and functional methods of assessing bilateral strength imbalance. Strength Cond J. 2010;24(6):1553–58.
- Rejc E, Lazzer S, Antonutto G, Isola M, Di Prampero PE. Bilateral deficit and EMG activity during explosive lower limb contractions against different overloads. Eur J Appl Physiol. 2010;108(1):157-65.
- Moir G. Strength and conditioning: a biomechanical approach. Burlington, Massachusetts: Jones & Bartlett Learning; 2016.
- Moritz CT, Farley CT. Human hopping on damped surfaces: Strategies for adjusting leg mechanics. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London, Series B: Biologic Sci. 2003;270:1741–46.
- Ashrostaghi M, Shirzad E, Arshi AR. The relationship between leg stiffness and the stretch-shortening cycle efficiency during vertical jump in female athletes. Sports Med Stud J. 2015;7(18):79-90.