Document Type : Research Paper


1 Department of Sport Managements and Biomechanics, Faculty of Educational Science and Psychology, University of Mohaghegh Ardabili, Ardabil, Iran.

2 1. MSc in Sport Biomechanics Department of Sports Management and Biomechanics, Faculty of Educational Sciences and Psychology, Mohaghegh Ardabili University, Ardabil, Iran


Research Aim: Most of sport injuries occur during fatigue. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of
Most sports injuries occur during fatigue. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of fatigue protocol on lower limb muscular activities in individuals with genu varus during running with agility shoes. In this study, 14 individuals with genu varus and 15 healthy control ones aged 20-30 years volunteered to participate. Muscle activities were recorded using a Biometric system. Findings demonstrated greater gluteus medius activity in the healthy group compared to the genu varus group. The main effect of fatigue on tibialis anterior activity during the loading phase and mid-stance phase was significant. Overall, because of different tibialis anterior and semitendinosus performance in the genu varus group compared with the healthy group during running before and after fatigue protocol, rehabilitation of these muscles is essential in genu varus individuals.


Main Subjects

  1. Begizew DM, Grace JM, van Heerden HJ. Lower-extremity running-related injuries among 10,000-meter long distance runners in Ethiopia. Journal of Human Sport and Exercise. 2019, 14(2): 358-373.
  2. Besomi M, Leppe J, Mauri-Stecca MV, Hooper TL, Sizer PS. Training volume and previous injury as associated factors for running-related injuries by race distance: a cross-sectional study. Journal of Human Sport and Exercise. 2019, 14(3): 549-559.
  3. Scherbenske AL. Multiplicity and Belonging among New York City Improviser-Composers, 2000-2011: Wesleyan University; 2014.
  4. Messier SP, Martin DF, Mihalko SL, Ip E, DeVita P, Cannon DW, et al. A 2-year prospective cohort study of overuse running injuries: the runners and injury longitudinal study (TRAILS). The American journal of sports medicine. 2018;46(9):2211-21.
  5. Van Gent R, Siem D, van Middelkoop M, Van Os A, Bierma-Zeinstra S, Koes B. Incidence and determinants of lower extremity running injuries in long distance runners: a systematic review. British journal of sports medicine. 2007;41(8):469-80.
  6. Hulme A, Salmon PM, Nielsen R, Read GJ, Finch C. Closing Pandora's Box: adapting a systems ergonomics methodology for better understanding the ecological complexity underpinning the development and prevention of running-related injury. Theoretical Issues in Ergonomics Science. 2017;18(4):338-59.
  7. Van Gheluwe B, Kirby KA, Hagman F. Effects of simulated genu valgum and genu varum on ground reaction forces and subtalar joint function during gait. Journal of the American Podiatric Medical Association. 2005;95(6):531-41.
  8. Jafarnezhadgero AA, Shad MM, Majlesi M, Granacher U. A comparison of running kinetics in children with and without genu varus: A cross sectional study. PloS one. 2017;12(9):e0185057.
  9. Cavanagh PR, Lafortune MA. Ground reaction forces in distance running. Journal of biomechanics. 1980;13(5):397-406.
  10. Waryasz GR, McDermott AY. Patellofemoral pain syndrome (PFPS): a systematic review of anatomy and potential risk factors. Dynamic medicine. 2008;7(1):1-14.
  11. Butler RJ, Davis IS, Hamill J. Interaction of arch type and footwear on running mechanics. The American Journal of Sports Medicine. 2006;34(12):1998-2005.
  12. TenBroek TM, Rodrigues PA, Frederick EC, Hamill J. Midsole thickness affects running patterns in habitual rearfoot strikers during a sustained run. Journal of applied biomechanics. 2014; 30(4)521-528. (In Persian)
  13. Hardin EC, Van Den Bogert AJ, Hamill J. Kinematic adaptations during running: effects of footwear, surface, and duration. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise. 2004;36(5):838-44.
  14. Stacoff A, Reinschmidt C, Nigg B, van den Bogert AJ, Lundberg A, Denoth J, et al. Effects of foot orthoses on skeletal motion during running. Clinical Biomechanics. 2000;15(1):54-64.
  15. Gu Y, Lu Y, Mei Q, Li J, Ren J. Effects of different unstable sole construction on kinematics and muscle activity of lower limb. Human movement science. 2014;36:46-57.
  16. Eslami M, Begon M, Hinse S, Sadeghi H, Popov P, Allard P. Effect of foot orthoses on magnitude and timing of rearfoot and tibial motions, ground reaction force and knee moment during running. Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport. 2009;12(6):679-84.
  17. Zifchock RA, Davis I. A comparison of semi-custom and custom foot orthotic devices in high-and low-arched individuals during walking. Clinical biomechanics. 2008;23(10):1287-93.


  1. Destieux C, Gaudreault N, Isner-Horobeti M, Vautravers P. Use of Postural Reconstruction® physiotherapy to treat an adolescent with asymmetric bilateral genu varum and idiopathic scoliosis. Annals of physical and rehabilitation medicine. 2013;56(4):312-26.
  2. Hermens HJ, Freriks B, Disselhorst-Klug C, Rau G. Development of recommendations for SEMG sensors and sensor placement procedures. Journal of electromyography and Kinesiology. 2000;10(5):361-74.
  3. Stegeman D, Hermens H. Standards for surface electromyography: The European project Surface EMG for non-invasive assessment of muscles (SENIAM). 2007.
  4. Chin WW. Commentary: Issues and opinion on structural equation modeling. JSTOR; 1998.
  5. Winter DA. Biomechanics and motor control of human movement: John Wiley & Sons; 2009.
  6. Namavarian N, Rezasoltani A, Rekabizadeh M. A study on the function of the knee muscles in genu varum and genu valgum. Modern Rehabilitation. 2014;8(3): 24-29. (In persian)
  7. Mahaki M, Shojaedin S, Memar R, Khaleghinazeji M. Comparison of electromyography activity of leg muscles and maximum vertical ground reaction forces in the single leg landing between patients with genu varum and normal men. Sport Med. 2013;4(9):87-106. (In persian)
  8. Keskula DR. Kinesiology: The Mechanics and Pathomechanics of Human Movement. Physical Therapy. 2004;84(3):291.
  9. Oatis CA. Biomechanics of the foot and ankle under static conditions. Physical therapy. 1988;68(12):1815-21.
  10. Hemsley K, Sitler M, Moyer R, Oatis C. Neuromuscular and psychological influences on range of motion recovery in anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction patients. Journal of Electromyography and Kinesiology. 2010;20(4):684-92.