Document Type : Research Paper
Master of Science in Sport Biomechanics, Department of Motor Behavior and Sports Biomechanics, Faculty Sports Scinces, University of Mazandran, Babolsar, Iran
Assistant Professor of Sport Biomechanic, Department of Sports Biomechanics, Faculty Sports Scinces, University of Mazandran, Babolsar, Iran
Professor of Sports physiology, Department of Sports physiology, Faculty Sports Scinces, University of Mazandran, Babolsar, Iran
The aim of this study was to assess the effect of six-week sand surface training on the biomechanical variables associated with an anterior cruciate ligament injury in female adolescent futsal players during cutting. The data collected from 12 subjects were recorded before and after 6 weeks of training on the sand surface during 45- and 90-degree cuts by a force plate and cameras. Comparisons between variables in pre- and post-tests were performed using mixed ANOVA. During the initial contact, knee flexion was greater in the cut of 45° than 90° in post-test condition. The peak knee external adduction moment and speed of movement in the anterior-posterior direction increased after training on the sand surface during both 45- and 90-degree cuts. Based on the results, training on the sand surface improved performance through increasing the speed of movement, and on the other hand, increased the load on the knee joint, indicating the need to provide solutions such as technique improvement training along with this protocol.
- Schmikli, S.L., et al., National survey on sports injuries in the Netherlands: target populations for sports injury prevention programs. Clinical Journal of Sport Medicine, 2009. 19(2): p. 101-106.
- Angoorani, H., et al., Injuries in Iran futsal national teams: a comparative study of incidence and characteristics. Asian journal of sports medicine, 2014. 5(3).
- ULUÖZ, E., Investigation of sport injury patterns in female futsal players. International Journal of Sport Culture and Science, 2016. 4(4): 474-488.
- Varkiani, M.E., M.H. Alizadeh, and L. Pourkazemi, The epidemiology of futsal injuries via sport medicine federation injury surveillance system of Iran in 2010. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 2013. 82: p. 946-951.
- Waldén, M., et , Three distinct mechanisms predominate in non-contact anterior cruciate ligament injuries in male professional football players: a systematic video analysis of 39 cases. British journal of sports medicine, 2015. 49(22): p. 1452-1460.
- Pollard, C.D., et al., A biomechanical comparison of dominant and non-dominant limbs during a side-step cutting task. Sports biomechanics, 2018.
- Havens, K.L. and S.M. Sigward, Joint and segmental mechanics differ between cutting maneuvers in skilled athletes. Gait & posture, 2015. 41(1): p. 33-38.
- Tsang, K.K. and A.A. DiPasquale, Improving the Q: H strength ratio in women using plyometric exercises. The Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research, 2011. 25(10): p. 2740-2745.
- Pinnington, H.C., et al., Kinematic and electromyography analysis of submaximal differences running on a firm surface compared with soft, dry sand. European journal of applied physiology, 2005. 94(3): p. 242-253.
- Berger, D., Early season sand training. Harrier, 1980. 7(1): p. 6.
- Pinnington, H.C. and B. Dawson, The energy cost of running on grass compared to soft dry beach sand. Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport, 2001. 4(4): p. 416-430.
- Singh, A., G. Sakshi, and S.J. Singh, Effect of plyometric training on sand versus grass on muscle soreness and selected sportspecific performance variables in hockey players. Journal of Human Sport and Exercise, 2014. 9(1): p. 59-67.
- Gaudino, P., et al., Biomechanics and predicted energetics of sprinting on sand: hints for soccer training. Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport, 2013. 16(3): p. 271-275.
- Besier, T.F., et al., External loading of the knee joint during running and cutting maneuvers. Medicine and science in sports and exercise, 2001. 33(7): p. 1168-1175.
- Jones, A., L. Herrington, and P. Graham-Smith, Braking characteristics during cutting and pivoting in female soccer players. Journal of Electromyography and Kinesiology, 2016. 30: p. 46-54.
- Kiapour, A.M., et al., Strain response of the anterior cruciate ligament to uniplanar and multiplanar loads during simulated landings: implications for injury mechanism. The American journal of sports medicine, 2016. 44(8): p. 2087-2096.
- Dai, B., et al., Biomechanical characteristics of an anterior cruciate ligament injury in javelin throwing. Journal of Sport and Health Science, 2015. 4(4): p. 333-340.
- Kristianslund, E., et al., Sidestep cutting technique and knee abduction loading: implications for ACL prevention exercises. British journal of sports medicine, 9(48): P. 779-783.
- Koga, H., et al., Mechanisms for noncontact anterior cruciate ligament injuries: knee joint kinematics in 10 injury situations from female team handball and basketball. The American journal of sports medicine, 2010. 38(11): p. 2218-2225.
- Dai, B., et al., The effect of performance demands on lower extremity biomechanics during landing and cutting tasks. Journal of sport and health science, 2019. 8(3): p. 228-234.
- Davies-Tuck, M.L., et al., Association between meniscal tears and the peak external knee adduction moment and foot rotation during level walking in postmenopausal women without knee osteoarthritis: a cross-sectional study. Arthritis research & therapy, 2008. 10(3): p. 1-7.
- Dos’Santos, T., et al., The effects of six-weeks change of direction speed and technique modification training on cutting performance and movement quality in male youth soccer players. Sports, 2019. 7(9): p. 205.
- Vanrenterghem, J., et al., The effect of running speed on knee mechanical loading in females during side cutting. Journal of biomechanics, 2012. 45(14): p. 2444-2449.
- Ford, K.R., G.D. Myer, and T.E. Hewett, Valgus knee motion during landing in high school female and male basketball players. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, 2003. 35(10): p. 1745-1750.
- Leporace, G., et al., Influence of a preventive training program on lower limb kinematics and vertical jump height of male volleyball athletes. Physical Therapy in Sport, 2013. 14(1): p. 35-43.
- Greska, E., et , Biomechanical differences related to leg dominance were not found during a cutting task. Scandinavian journal of medicine & science in sports, 2017. 27(11): p. 1328-1336.
- Schreurs, M.J., A. Benjaminse, and K.A. Lemmink, Sharper angle, higher risk? The effect of cutting angle on knee mechanics in invasion sport athletes. Journal of biomechanics, 2017. 63: p. 144-150.
- Dai, B., et al., Anterior cruciate ligament injuries in soccer: Loading mechanisms, risk factors, and prevention programs. Journal of Sport and Health Science, 2014. 3(4): p. 299-306.
- Svenningsen, F.P., M. de Zee, and A.S. Oliveira, The effect of shoe and floor characteristics on walking kinematics. Human movement science, 2019. 66: p. 63-72.
- Gortsila, E., et al., Effect of training surface on agility and passing skills of prepubescent female volleyball players. Journal of Sports Medicine & Doping Studies, 2013. 3.
- Fox, A.S., Change-of-direction biomechanics: is what’s best for anterior cruciate ligament injury prevention also best for performance? Sports Medicine, 2018. 48(8): p. 1799-1807.
- Sigward, S.M., G.M. Cesar, and K.L. Havens, Predictors of frontal plane knee moments during side-step cutting to 45 and 110 men and women: Implications for ACL injury. Clinical journal of sport medicine: official journal of the Canadian Academy of Sport Medicine, 2015. 25(6): p. 529.
- Cortes, N., J. Onate, and B. Van Lunen, Pivot task increases knee frontal plane loading compared with sidestep and drop-jump. Journal of sports sciences, 2011. 29(1): p. 83-92.
- Jones, P.A., L.C. Herrington, and P. Graham-Smith, Technique determinants of knee joint loads during cutting in female soccer players. Human movement science, 2015. 42: p. 203-211.
- Marshall, B.M., et al., Biomechanical factors associated with time to complete a change of direction cutting maneuver. The Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research, 2014. 28(10): p. 2845-2851.
- Foroughi, N., R. Smith, and B. Vanwanseele, The association of external knee adduction moment with biomechanical variables in osteoarthritis: a systematic review. The Knee, 2009. 16(5): p. 303-309.
- Miyazaki, T., et al., Dynamic load at baseline can predict radiographic disease progression in medial compartment knee osteoarthritis. Annals of the rheumatic diseases, 2002. 61(7): p. 617-622.
- Telfer, S., M.J. Lange, and A.S. Sudduth, Factors influencing knee adduction moment measurement: a systematic review and meta-regression analysis. Gait & posture, 2017. 58: p. 333-339.
- Hammami, M., et al., The effect of a sand surface on physical performance responses of junior male handball players to plyometric training. BMC Sports Science, Medicine and Rehabilitation, 2020. 12(1): p. 1-8.