Document Type : Research Paper


1 Sport Sciences and Health - Shahid Beheshti University

2 - Corrective Exercises and Sports Injuries, faculty of physical education and Sport Sciences, University of Guilan, Rasht, Iran

3 Assistant Professor, Department of Sport sciences department, faculty of literature and humanities, Lorestan university


Scapula movement impairment is common among athletes with overhead throws and can make athletes susceptible to shoulder injuries. The purpose of this study was The effect game position on scapula movement impairment and shoulder girdle stability among elite women volleyball players. In this descriptive-comparative study, 125 women volleyball players were purposefully selected and compared. Participants classified in this study with obvious scapular movement impairment of the scapular dyskinesis test, Kibler lateral scapular slide test and scapulohumeral rhythm. For measure the strength and rang of motion respectively handdeld power meter and goniometer were used. The Y-Balance Test Upper Quarter and Seated Medicine Ball Throw was used to measure the functional stability of the upper extremity. One_Way ANOVA, bonferroni correction test, chi square pearson correlation was used to analyze data. The results showed, significant difference between the frequency of scapular movement impairment in the five positions of the game. In addition, there was significant relationship between movement impairment and volleyball game position. (P= 0/001) Different movement patterns in the game positions caused a difference in the players' functional stability score, and the use of specific muscles in the movement pattern in each position affected the ratio of muscle length and strength and their range of motion. Doing repetitive motion patterns at volleyball for a long time causes imbalance in natural strength raito, scapulohumeral rhythm and range of motion.


Main Subjects

  1. Sahrmann SA. Concepts and principles of movement. In: Sahrmann SA, White K, editors. Diagnosis and treatment of movement impairment syndromes. Mosby; 2002. p. 9–50.
  2. Borstad, John D., Kimberly Szucs, and Anand Navalgund. "Scapula kinematic alterations following a modified push-up plus task." Human movement science 28.6 (2009): 738-751.‏
  3. Reeser, Jonathan C. "Looking ahead: the future of volleyball sports medicine and science." Handbook of sports medicine and science: volleyball. 2nd ed. Hoboken: John Wiley & Sons (2017): 221-223
  4. Hajihosseini, Elham, Ali Asghar Norasteh, and Hassan Daneshmandi. "Comparison of Isometric Strength and Functional Stability of Shoulder Girdle Muscles in Volleyball Women Players with and without Scapular Dyskinesia." Journal of Health Promotion Management 8.5 (2019): 24-32.‏ inpersion
  5. Kibler, B.W., A. Sciascia, and T. Wilkes, Scapular dyskinesis and its relation to shoulder injury. Journal of the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons, 2012. 20(6): p. 364-372.
  6. Lin, Jiu‐jenq, et al. "Adaptive patterns of movement during arm elevation test in patients with shoulder impingement syndrome." Journal of Orthopaedic Research 29.5 (2011): 653-657.‏
  7. Borstad, John D., Kimberly Szucs, and Anand Navalgund. "Scapula kinematic alterations following a modified push-up plus task." Human movement science 28.6 (2009): 738-751.‏
  8. Samakoush, Babagoltabar, Hamed, Norasteh, Aliasghar, Mohammad Ali Nasab Firouzjah, Ebrahim. "Assessment of Strength, Endurance, and Muscles Flexibility in Teenage Wrestlers with and without Hyper Kyphosis." J Rehab Med. 2020; 9(3):62-71. inpersion
  9. Amasay, T., and G. A. Hall. "II, Shapiro S, Ludwig K The Relation between Scapular Dyskinesis and the Upper Quarter Y-Balance Test." Int J Anat Appl Physiol 2.2 (2016): 20-25.‏
  10. Manokas, Sophia, Tal Amasay, and Vered Arbel. "The Effect of Scapular Dyskinesis on Upper Quarter Y-Balance Test Performance." International Journal of Exercise Science: Conference Proceedings. Vol. 2. No. 12. 2020.‏
  11. Pashaei, Zahra, Daneshmandi, Hassan, Norasteh, Ali Asghar, Fatahi,Ali. "Effect scapular movement impairment on Functional Stability of Shoulder Girdle and scapulohumeral rhythm in elite men volleyball players" 22037/JRM.2021.113972.2470inpersion
  12. Zandi, Shahrzad, et al. "Upper quarter functional stability in female volleyball players with and without anterior shoulder instability, with consideration of arm dominance." Archives of Rehabilitation 16.4 (2016): 346-355inpersion
  13. Javdaneh, Noorollah, Nazanin Kamrani Faraz, and Behnam Shokri. "Investigation Stability of Upper Limb Function in Handballers with Glenohumeral Internal Rotation Deficit." Journal of Sport Biomechanics 3.2 (2017): 51-59.‏ inpersion
  14. Hazar, Zeynep, Naime Ulug, and Inci Yuksel. "Upper Quarter Y-Balance Test Score of Patients with Shoulder Impingement Syndrome." Orthopaedic journal of sports medicine 2.11_suppl3 (2014): 2325967114S00275.‏
  15. Hannah, Daniel C., Jason S. Scibek, and Christopher R. Carcia. "Strength profiles in healthy individuals with and without scapular dyskinesis." International journal of sports physical therapy 12.3 (2017): 305.
  16. Bayattork, Mohammad, et al. "Intra-rater and Inter-rater Reliability and Agreement of the Scapular Dyskinesis test in Young Men with Forward Head and Round Shoulder Posture." Journal of Rehabilitation Sciences & Research 6.4 (2019): 169-173.‏ inpersion
  17. Ozunlu N, Tekeli H, Baltaci G. Lateral scapular slide test and scapular mobility in volleyball players. National Athletic Trainers' Association, Inc; 2011.
  18. Odom, Corrie J., et al. "Measurement of scapular asymmetry and assessment of shoulder dysfunction using the lateral scapular slide test: a reliability and validity study." Physical therapy 81.2 (2001): 799-809.‏
  19. Ben Kibler W. The role of the scapula in athletic shoulder function. Am J Sports Med. 1998;26(2):325-37.
  20. Hosseinimehr, Seyed Hossein, et al. "The comparison of scapular upward rotation and scapulohumeral rhythm between dominant and non-dominant shoulder in male overhead athletes and non-athletes." Manual therapy 20.6 (2015): 758-762. inpersion
  21. Struyf, Filip, et al. "Scapular positioning and motor control in children and adults: a laboratory study using clinical measures." Manual therapy 16.2 (2011): 155-160.
  22. Johnson, Michael P., Philip W. McClure, and Andrew R. Karduna. "New method to assess scapular upward rotation in subjects with shoulder pathology." Journal of Orthopaedic & Sports Physical Therapy 31.2 (2001): 81-89.
  23. Merolla, Giovanni, et al. "Supraspinatus and infraspinatus weakness in overhead athletes with scapular dyskinesis: strength assessment before and after restoration of scapular musculature balance." Musculoskeletal surgery 94.3 (2010): 119-125.
  24. Ghanbari, Leila, et al. "Prediction of scapular dyskinesis through electromyographic indices of scapulothoracic muscles in female overhead athletes." Journal of Rehabilitation Sciences & Research 5.3 (2018): 74-80.‏ inpersion
  25. Kendall FP, McCreary EK, Provance PG, Rodgers MM, Romani WA. Muscles: "Testing and function, with posture and pain" (Kendall, Muscles). LWW. 2005.
  26. Heidari, safora. "The Comparison of strength ratio between muscles of the shoulder in volleyball and badminton players" [Thesis]. Pittsburgh (PA) univ. of Guilan; 2015. inpersion
  27. Nodehi Moghadam, Afsun, et al. "Comparing isometric strengths of shoulder girdle muscles in females with and without scapular dyskinesis." Archives of Rehabilitation 19.2 (2018): 92- 101. inpersion
  28. Hosseinimehr, S. H., M. Anbarian, and M. T. Khosravi. "The survey of scapulohumeral rhythm and isometric strength ratio of shoulder agonist to antagonist muscles in handball players and non-athletes." Journal of Sport Medicine Review 5.14 (2014): 15-30. inpersion
  29. Audenaert, Dimitri, Jeroen Baele, and Joren Christiaens. A normative database of functional (shoulder) tests within healthy male overhead athletes. Diss. Master’s thesis, Ghent University, 2017.‏
  30. 30-‌ Borms, Dorien, and Ann Cools. "Upper-extremity functional performance tests: reference values for overhead athletes." International journal of sports medicine 39.06 (2018): 433-441.‏
  31. Lippert, Lynn S. "Clinical kinesiology and anatomy. Philadelphia, PA: FA Davis Company." Year Book (2006).
  32. Westrick RB, Miller JM, Carow SD, Gerber JP. Exploration of the Y-balance test for assessment of upper quarter closed ki- netic chain performance. International Journal of Sports Physical Therapy. 2012; 7(2):139-47
  33. Butler, R.J., et al., Bilateral differences in the upper quarter function of high school aged baseball and softball players. International journal of sports physical therapy, 2014. 9(4): p. 518.
  34. Gorman, Paul P., et al. "Upper Quarter Y Balance Test: reliability and performance comparison between genders in active adults." The Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research 26.11 (2012): 3043-3048.
  35. Myers JB, Ju YY, Hwang JH, McMahon PJ, Rodosky MW, Lephart SM. Reflexive muscle activation alterations in shoul- ders with anterior glenohumeral instability. American Journal of Sports Medicine. 2004; 32(4):1013-21
  36. Myers JB, Lephart SM. Sensorimotor deficits contributing to glenohumeral instability. Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Re- search. 2002; 400:98-104.
  37. Guido Jr JA, Stemm J. Reactive neuromuscular training: a multi- level approach to rehabilitation of the unstable shoulder. North American Journal of Sports Physical Therapy. 2007; 2(2):97-103.
  38. Arshadi R, Ghasemi GA, Samadi H. Effects of an 8-week selective corrective exercises program on electromyography activity of scapular and neck muscles in persons with upper crossed syndrome: Randomized controlled trial. Phys Ther Sport. 2019; 37:113-9 inpersion
  39. Lees, Adrian. "Science and the major racket sports: a review." Journal of sports sciences 21.9 (2003): 707-732.
  40. Escamilla RF, Yamashiro K, Paulos L, Andrews JR. Shoulder muscle activity and function in common shoulder rehabilitation exercises. Am J Sports Med. 2009; 39: 663–85.