Document Type : Research Paper


Sports Biomechanics ,Institute of Physical Education and Sports Sciences, Iran, Tehran


The purpose of this research was to investigate and analyze the risk factors of brain damage in a direct boxing punch. In this research, in order to investigate the risk factors of brain damage (linear acceleration and rotational acceleration and its components, head and neck orientation (flexion-extension of the head and movement to the right and left of the neck at angles of 0, 5, 10 and 15 degrees)) computer simulation method was used in boxing. Thus, at first, a suitable model of head and neck and punch was simulated in Adams software. Then, inverse kinematics method and Euler ZXZ angles were used to determine the orientation of the head and neck. The results showed the maximum linear acceleration and rotational acceleration in the reference state (anatomical position of the neck) 75 g and 4036 rad/s2, respectively. Among the acceleration components, the greatest increase occurred in the rotational acceleration component around the neck axis and in the sagittal plane. The results of the present research showed that the linear acceleration and the orientation of the head and neck when hit are not very effective in the occurrence of brain damage in boxers, but the rotational acceleration and the orientation of the head and neck in the sagittal plane, which can probably be Important factors of brain damage. Therefore, in the design and manufacture of protective hats, it is better to pay attention to its manufacturers.


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