Document Type : Research Paper


1 Professor at University of Isfahan

2 Associate Professor at University of Isfahan

3 Persian Gulf University of Bushehr


Prostate cancer is one of the most common cancers in men which does negative effects on musculoskeletal system. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of resistance training on balance and flexibility of patients with prostate cancer. Twenty-two men with non-metastatic prostate cancer from Isfahan voluntarily participated in this study. Patients were randomly assigned into an intervention group and control groups. Patients in experimental group participated in a resistance exercise program for 10 weeks but control group followed their normal treatment program. Before and after this period static balance (open and close eyes) and flexibility of all patients were evaluated. Results were analyzed using independent and dependent t-test. A significant improvement (P< 0.05) in balance in dominant leg (opened and closed eyes) was observed in experimental group and also in non-dominant leg only with closed eyes, but no change in control group. Flexibility improved significantly (P< 0.05) in experimental group but not in control group. It can be concluded that resistance training does positive effects on balance and flexibility in patients with prostate cancer, so it can be recommended as a modality for these patients.


  1. Poorkiani M, Hazrati M, Abbaszadeh A, Jafari P, Sadeghi M, Dejbakhsh T, et al. Does a rehabilitation program improve quality of life in breast cancer patients?‌ Payesh. 2010; 9(1): 61-8. (In Persian).
  2. Sajadian A, Kaviani A, Montazeri A, Haji Mahmodi M, Ebrahimi M, Samie F, et al. The use of complementary and alternative therapies in cancer patients. Payesh. 2004; 4(3): 197- 205. (In Persian).
  3. Mardani Hamule M, Shahraki Vahed A. Relationship between mental health and quality of life in cancer patients. JSSU. 2010; 18‌(2)‌: 111-‌7. (In Persian).
  4. Yavari P, Mehrabi U, Pour-Hoseingholi M A. Knowledge and practice of women toward breast self‌-examination: A case-control study‌. J Ardabil Univ Med Sci. 2005; 5‌(4)‌: 371-‌7. (In Persian).
  5. Sharafi A, Khoshgard K, Nikoofar A. Measurement of the absorbed dose by bladder and rectum in the radiation therapy of Prostate cancer by thermoluminescent dosimetry method. RJMS. 2009; 16‌(64): 7-13. (In Persian).
  6. Clay C, Perera S, Wagner J M, Miller M E, Nelson J B, Greenspan S L. Physical function in men with prostate cancer on androgen deprivation therapy. Phys Ther. 2007; 87‌(10): 1325-‌33.
  7. Parkin D M‌, Bray F, Ferlay J, Pisani P. Global cancer statistics. CA- Cancer J Clin. 2005; 55(2): 74- 108.
  8. Newton R U, Taaffe D‌, Spry N, Gardiner R A, Levin G, Wall B, et al. Phase III clinical trial of exercise modalities on treatment side-effects in men receiving therapy for prostate cancer. BMC Cancer. 2009; 9: 210.
  9. Mohammadi Falah M R, Jafari S, Alizade M, Mokhtari M R. The effect of intravesical BCG therapy on serum PSA level. Urmia Medical Journal. 2008; 2(19): 152- ‌7. (In Persian).
  10. Morgentaler A. Testosterone and Prostate cancer: What are the risks for middle-aged men? ‌Urol Clin Am. 2011; 38: 119-24.
  11. Thampson I, Carroll, P, Coley C, Sweat G, Schellhammer P, Wasson J et al. Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) best practice policy American Urological Association (AUA). Oncology (Williston Park). 2000; 14: 267–‌72.
  12. Goldenberg S L, Koupparis A, Robinson M E. Differing levels of testosterone and the prostate: A physiological interplay. ‌Nat Rev Uro. 2001; 8: 365- ‌77.
  13. Smith M R, Finkelstein J S, McGovern F J, Zietman A L, Fallon M A, Sch oenfeld D A, et al. Changes in body composition during androgen deprivation therapy for prostate cancer.‌ J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2002; 87: 599- 603.
  14. Drouin J S, Beeler J. Exercise and urologic cancers. Urologic Oncology. 2008; 26(2): 205-12.
  15. Liua S, Leea M, Linsona P, Ajania U, Buringa J E, Hennekense C H. A prospective study of physical activity and risk of prostate cancer in US physicians. Int J Epidemiol.‌ 2009; 29‌(1): 29-35.
  16. Segal R J, Reid R D, Courneya K S, Malone S C, Parliament M B, Scott C G, et al. Resistance exercise in men receiving androgen deprivation therapy for Prostate cancer. J Clin Oncol. 2003; 21: 1653-‌59.
  17. Galvao D A, Nosaka K, Taaffe D R, Spry N, Kristjanson L J, McGuuigan M R, et al. Resistance training and reduction of treatment side effects in prostate cancer patients. Med Sci Sports Exer. 2006, 38: 2045–52.
  18. Culos-Reed S N, Robinson J L, Lau H, O’Connor K, ‌Keats M R. Benefits of a physical activity intervention for men with prostate cancer. J Sport Exer Psycho. ‌2007; 29: 118-‌27.
  19. Galvao D A, Taaffe D R, Spry N, Joseph D, Newton R U. Combined resistance and aerobic exercise program reverses muscle loss in men undergoing androgen suppression therapy for Prostate cancer without bone metastases: A randomized controlled trial. J Clin Oncol. 2010; 28: 340-‌7.
  20. Spirduso W W. Physical dimensions of aging. Human Kinetics: Champaign, IL; 2nd-Edition, ‌1995. ‌P. 79.
  21. Shahinian V B, Kuo Y F, Freeman J L, Goodwin J S. Risk of fracture after androgen deprivation for prostate cancer. New Engl J Med‌. ‌2005; 352: 154-‌64.
  22.  Kolden G G, Strauman T J, Ward A‌, Kuta J, Woods T E, Schneider K L, ‌et al. A pilot study of group exercise training (GET) for women with primary breast cancer: Feasibility and health benefits. Psychooncology. 2002; 11(5): 447-‌56.
  23. Moritani T, DeVries H A. Potential for gross muscle hypertrophy in older men. J Gerontol. 1980; 5: 672–‌82.
  24. Greenspan S L, ‌Coates P, Sereika S M, ‌Nelson J B, Trump D L, Resnick N M. Bone loss after initiation of androgen deprivation therapy in patients with prostate cancer. J Clin Endocr Metab. 2005; 90‌(12): 6410-‌17.
  25. Segal R J, Reid R D, Courneya K S, Sigal R J, Kenny G P, Prudhomme D G, et al. Randomized controlled trial of resistance or aerobic exercise in men receiving radiation therapy for prostate cancer. J Clin Oncol. 2009; 23: 344-‌51.