Document Type : Research Paper


1 Ph.D. of Sport Injuries & Corrective Exercises, Kharazmi University

2 Associated Professor of Sport Injuries & Corrective Exercises, Kharazmi University

3 Professor of Physical Therapy and electrophysiology, University of Tehran Medicine Sciences

4 Assistant Professor of Sport Injuries & Corrective Exercises, Kharazmi University

5 Associated Professor of Sport Biomechanics, University of Mazandaran


The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of 8 weeks of FIFA 11+ training on ground reaction force variables during single leg drop landing in young male soccer players. Twenty-four soccer players aged under 21years old were randomly divided into experimental and control groups. The experimental group underwent 2-month FIFA 11+ training. Peak values for the components of Ground Reaction Force were significantly decreased during single leg drop landing in experimental group. In contrast, time to peak of these force variables significantly increased. According to these findings, it can be concluded that FIFA 11+ training program may have a positive effect in modifying knee injury risk factors.


1. Rahnama N. Prevention of football injuries. Int J Prev Med 2011; 2(1): 38-40.
2. Dvorak J. Osteoarthritis in football: FIFA/F-MARC approach. Br J Sports Med. 2011; 45(8): 673-‌6.
3. Kiani A, Hellquist E, Ahlqvist K, Gedeborg R, Michaelsson K, Byberg L. Prevention of soccer-related knee injuries in teenaged girls. Arch Intern Med. 2010; 170(1): 43-9. (In Persian).
4. Williams G N, Chmielewski T, Rudolph K S, Buchanon T S, Snyder L. Dynamic knee stability: Current theory and implicatin for clinicians and scientists. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther. 2001; 31(10): 546-‌66.
5. Palmieri R M, Wojtys E M, Ashton J A. Association between preparatory muscle activation and peak valgus knee angle. J Electromyogr Kinesiol. 2008; 18(6): 973-‌9.
6. Olsen O E, Myklebust G, Engebretsen L, Bahr R. Injury mechanisms for anterior cruciate ligament injuries in team handball: A systematic video analysis. Am J Sports Med. 2004; 32(4): 1002-‌12.
7. Boden B P, Dean G S, Feagin J A, Garrett W E. Mechanisms of anterior cruciate ligament injury. Orthopaedics. 2000; 23(6): 573-‌8.
8. Decker M J, Torry M R, Wyland D J, Sterett W I, Steadman J R. Gender differences in lower extremity kinematics, kinetics, and energy absorption during landing. Clin Biomech. 2003; 18(7): 662-‌9.
9. Zhang S N, Bates B T, Dufek J S. Contributions of lower extremity joints to energy dissipation during landings. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2000; 32(4): 812-‌9.
10. Dufek J S, Bates B T. Biomechanical factors associated with injury during landing in jump sports. Sports Med. 1991; 12(5): 326-‌37.
11. Poul D P, Simonsen E B, Voigt M. Dynamic control of muscle stiffness and H reflex modulation during hopping and jumping in man. J Physiol. 1991; 437: 287.‏
12. Gilchrist J, Mandelbaum BR, Melancon H, Ryan GW, Silvers HJ, Griffin LY. A randomized controlled trial to prevent noncontact anterior cruciate ligament‌ injury‌ in‌ female collegiate soccer players. Am J Sports Med. 2008; 36(8): 1476-‌83.
13. Mandelbaum BR, Silvers HJ, Watanabe DS, Knarr JF, Thomas SD, Griffin LY. Effectiveness‌ of‌ a‌ neuromuscular‌ and‌ proprioceptive‌ training program‌ in‌ preventing‌ anterior cruciate ‌ligament‌ injuries‌ female‌ athletes 2 year‌ follow up. Am J Sports Med. 2005; 33(7): 1003-‌10.
14. Chappell J D, Creighton R A, Giuliani C, Yu B, Garrett W E. Kinematics and electromyography of landing preparation in vertical stop-jump risks for noncontact anterior cruciate ligament injury. Am J Sports Med. 2007; 35(2): 235-‌41.
15. Garrison‌ J C, Hart J M, Palmieri R M, Kerrigan D C, Lngersoll C D. Lower extremity EMG in male and female college soccer players‌ during single leg landing. J Sport Rehabil. 2005; 14(1): 48-57.
16. Hewett T E, Stroupe A L, Nance T A, Noyes F R. Plyometric training in female athletes decreased impact forces and increased hamstring torques. Am J Sports Med. 1996; 24(6): 765-‌73.
17. Irmischer B S, Harris C, Pfeiffer R P, Debeliso M A, Adams K J, Shea K G. Effects of a knee ligament injury prevention exercise program on impact forces in women. J Strength Condition Res. 2004; 18(4): 703–‌7.
18. Herman DC, Onate JA, Weinhol PS, Guskiewicz KM, Garrett WE, Yu B. The effects of feedback with and without strength training on lower extremity biomechanics. Am J Sports Med. 2009; 37(7): 1301-‌8.
19. Wilkerson G B, Colston M A, Short N I, Neal K L, Hoewischer P E, Pixley J J. Neuromuscular changes in female collegiate athletes resulting from a plyometric jump training program. J Athl Train. 2004; 39(1): 17-23.
20. Tsang K K, Dipasquale A A. Improving the Q: H strength ratio in women using plyometric exercises. J Strength Condition Res. 2011; 25(10): 2740-‌5.
21. Cooper M T, Kaeding C. Comparison of the hospital cost of auto graft versus allograft soft tissue anterior cruciate ligament reconstructions. J Arthrosc Relat Surg. 2010; 26(11): 1478-‌82.
22. Herman DC, Weinhold PS, Guskiewicz KM, Garrett WE, Yu B. The effects of strength training on the lower extremity biomechanics of female recreational athletes during a stop-jump task. Am J Sports Med. 2008; 36(4): 733–40.
23. Vescovi J D, Canavan P K, Hasson S. Effects of a plyometric program on vertical landing force and jumping performance in college women. Phys Ther in Sport. 2008; 9(4): 185–‌92.
24. Longo U G, Loppini M, Berton ‌A, Marinozzi A, Maffulli N, Denaro V. The‌ FIFA‌+11 program is effect in preventing injuries in elite male basketball players: A cluster randomized controlled trial. Am J Sports Med. 2012; 40(5): 996-1005.
25. Walden M, Atroshi I, Magnusson H, Wagner P, Hägglund M. Prevention of acute knee injuries in adolescent female football players: Cluster randomized controlled trial. Br J Sports Med. 2012; 344: 3042.‏
26. Zarei M. Effect of comprehensive FIFA warm up programs on injuries incidence and performance in male soccer players. (Doctoral dissertation). University of Tehran; Faculty of Physical Education and Sport Sciences; 2014. (In Persian).
27. Soligard T, Myklebust G, Steffen K, Holme I, Silvers H, Bizzini M. Comprehensive warm-up program to prevent injuries in young female footballers: Cluster randomised controlled trial. Br J Sports Med. 2008; 337: 2469.
28. Medina J M, McLeod T C V, Howell S K, Kingma J J. Timing of neuromuscular activation of the quadriceps and hamstrings prior to landing in high school male athletes, female athletes, and female non-athletes. J Electromyogr Kinesiol. 2008; 18(4): 591-‌7.
29.Winter D A. The biomechanics and motor control of human movement. 4th ed. Canada: Waterloo: University of Waterloo Press; 2009. P. 176.
30. Markovic G, Jukic I, Milanovic D, Metikos D. Effects of sprint and plyometric training on muscle function and athletic performance. J Strength Condition Res. 2007; 21(2): 543-‌9.
31. Faude O, Robler R, Junge A. Football injuries in children and adolescent players: Are there clues for prevention? Sport Med. 2013; 43(9): 819-‌37.
32. Barendrecht M, Lezeman CA, Duysens J, Smits CM. Neuromuscular training improves knee kinematics in particular in valgus aligned adolescent team handball players of both sexes. J Strength Condition Res. 2011; 25(3): 575-‌84.
33. Gerber J P, Williams G N, Scoville C R, Arciero R A, Taylor D C. Persistent disability associated with ankle sprains: A prospective examination of an athletic population. Foot Ankle Int. 1998; 19(10): 653-‌60.‏
34. Cowley H R, Ford K R, Myer G D, Kernozek T W, Hewett T E‌. Differences in neuromuscular strategies between landing and cutting tasks in female basketball and soccer athletes. J Athl Train. 2006; 41(1): 67-73.
35. Hewett T E, Ford K R, Hoogenboom B J, Myer G D. Understanding and preventing ACL injuries: Current biomechanical and epidemiologic consideration. N Am J Sports Phys Ther. 2010; 5(4): 234-‌51.
36. Zebis MK, Bencke J, Andersen LL, Dossing S, Alkjaer T, Magnusson SP. The effects of neuromuscular training on knee joint motor control during sidecutting in female elite soccer and handball players. Clin J Sport Med. 2008; 18(4): 329-‌37.
37. Cowling E J, Steele J R. Is lower limb muscle synchrony during landing affected by gender? Implications for variation in ACL injury rates. J Electromyogr Kinesiol. 2001; 11(4): 263-‌8.