Document Type : Research Paper


1 Kharazmi university

2 none

3 School of physical education and sport science,Shiraz University,Shiraz,Iran


Introduction: Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury is one of the most common sport injuries. This study attempts to investigate the effect of neuromuscular training on postural stability and performance of lower extremity in females with ligament dominance.
Methods: 24 subjects at risk of ACL injuries selected and were randomly assigned to experimental and control groups. The experimental group was undergoing to six-weeks of neuromuscular training program.
Result: The results showed significant differences in lateral center of pressure and performance in experimental group. while no significant difference was observed in control group. Conclusion: The result showed that six weeks of neuromuscular training may improve the COP and performance of women with ligament dominance.


Main Subjects

  1. Lam MH, Fong DT, Yung P, Ho EP, Chan WY, KM C. Knee stability assessment on anterior cruciate ligament injury: Clinical and biomechanical approaches. Sports Med Arthrosc Rehabil Ther Technol. 2009;1(20):1-9.
  2. Little D, Thompson JW, Dubois LG, Ruch DS, Moseley MA, Guilak F. Proteomic differences between male and female anterior cruciate ligament and patellar tendon. Plos one. 2014;9(5):1-14.
  3. Swart E, Redler L, Fabricant DP, Mandelbaum RB, Ahmad SC, Wang CY. Prevention and screening programs for anterior cruciate ligament injuries in young athletes. J Bone & Joint Surg. 2014; 96:705-11.
  4. Kiapour AM, Murray MM. Instructional review: Knee basic science of anterior cruciate ligament injury and repair. Bone Joint Res. 2014; 3:20-31.
  5. Golchini A, Behpour N, Ahanjan SH. Static and dynamic equilibrium analysis of athletes with anterior cruciate ligaments reconstructed through arthroscopy. Sport Science Res. 2012;8(2): (In Persian).
  6. Aslzaker F, Goharpey SH, Shaterzadeh M, Zahednejad SH, Navali A, Talebi GH. The effect of perturbation exercises along with traditional rehabilitation on functional tests and the relation between the power of hamstring and quadrice then in Cooper and non-Cooper groups of patients with anterior cruciate ligament injury. J Rehabil Tehran University of Med Sci. 2012;7(4): 153-169. (In Persian).
  7. Letafatkar A, Rajabi R, Minoonejad H, Rabiei P. Efficacy of Perturbation-enhanced neuromuscular training on hamstring and quadriceps onset time, activation and knee flexion during a tuck- jump task. Int J Sports Phys Ther. 2019;14(2):214-227.
  8. Klugman MF, Brent JL, Myer GD, Ford KR, Hewett TE. Does an in-season only neuromuscular training protocol reduce deficits quantified by the tuck jump assessment? Clin Sports Med. 2011;30(4):825-40.
  9. McGuine TA, Greene JJ, Best T, Leverson G. Balance as a predictor of ankle injuries in high school basketball players. Clin J Sport Med. 2000;10(4):239-44.
  10. Hewett TE, Torg JS, Boden BP. Video analysis of trunk and knee motion during non-contact anterior cruciate ligament injury in female athletes: lateral trunk and knee abduction motion are combined components of the injury mechanism. Br J Sports Med. 2009; 43:417-22.
  11. Nicknam H, Sarmadi A, Salavati M, Madadi F. Reliability of Center of pressure parameters in patients after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction surgery. Zahedan J Res Med Sci. In Press. (In Persian).
  12. Zech A, Klahn P, Hoeft J, zu-Eulenburg C, Steib S. Time course and dimensions of postural control changes following neuromuscular training in youth field hockey athletes. Eur J Appl Physiol. 2014;114(2):395-403.
  13. Myer GD, Ford KR, Hewett TE. Tuck jump assessment for reducing anterior cruciate ligament injury risk. Athl Ther Today. 2008;13(5):39-44.
  14. Bien DP. Rationale and implementation of anterior cruciate ligament injury prevention warm-up programs in female athletes. J Strength Cond Res. 2011;25(1):271-85.
  15. Hadadnezhad M, Rajabi R, Jamshidi A, Shirzad E. Effect of stability exercises on the activity of women's lumbar muscles, with trunk control defect. Sports med studies. 2015; 68:17-51. (In Persian).
  16. Herrington L, Myer GD, Munro A. Intra and inter-tester reliability of the tuck jump assessment. Phys Ther Sport. 2013; 14:152-155.
  17. Mohamadi H, Daneshmandi H, Alizade M, Shamsmajelan A. Investigation of neuromuscular screening tests effective in non-collision damage of anterior cruciate ligament. J Kurdistan University Med Sci. 2014; 105:20-85. (In Persian).
  18. Myer GD, Ford KR, Hewett TE. Real-time assessment and neuromuscular training feedback techniques to prevent anterior cruciate ligament injury in female athletes. Strength & Condition J. 2011; 33:21-35.
  19. Hewett TE, Myer GD, Ford KR, Heidt RS, Colosimo AJ, McLean SG, et al. Biomechanical measures of neuromuscular control and valgus loading of the knee predict anterior cruciate ligament injury risk in female athletes. Am J Sports Med. 2005; 33:492-501.
  20. Shahamiri Fatahi F, Alizadeh M, Minoonezhad M. The effect of parenthesis anomalies on dynamic stability in single-foot single-leg jump task. Sports Med Studies. 2013; 52:31-9. (In Persian).
  21. DI-Stasi S, Myer DG, Hewett TE. Neuromuscular training to target deficits associated with second anterior cruciate ligament injury. J Orthop & Sports Phys Ther. 2013;43(11):777-792.
  22. Field A. Discovering statistics using IBM SPSS statistics. 4th edition. London: SAGE Publications; 2013. P.123-125.
  23. Shinkle J, Nesser T, Demchak T, McMannus D. Effect of corestrength on the measure of power in the extremities. J Strength Cond Res. 2012; 26:373-80.
  24.  Letafatkar A, Rajabi R, Takamejani E, Minoonezhad H. Effects of perturbation training on quadriceps and hamstring electromyographic ratios. Koomesh. 2014; 4(52): 469-481. (In Persian).
  25. Hewett ET, Ford RK, Hoogenboom JB, Myer GD. Understanding and preventing ACL injury: Current biomechanical and epidemiologic considerations-update 2010. North Am J Sports Phys Ther. 2010; 5(4):234-251.
  26. Zazulak B, Ponce P, Straub S, Medvecky M, Hewett T. Gender comparison of hip muscle activity during single-leg landing. J Orthop & Sports Phys Ther. 2005;35(5):292-299.
  27. Myer GD, Chu DA, Brent JL, TE H. Trunk and hip control neuromuscular training for the prevention of knee joint injury. Clin Sports Med. 2008;27(3):425-48.
  28. Murray JJ, Renier CM, Ahern JJ, Elliott BA. Neuromuscular training availability and efficacy in preventing anterior cruciate ligament injury in high school sports: A retrospective cohort study. Clin J Sport Med. 2017; 27:524-529.
  29. Sugimoto D, Myer G, Barber K, Pepin M, Micheli L, Hewett T. Critical components of neuromuscular training to reduce ACL injury risk in female athletes: Meta-regression analysis. Sports Med. 2016; 50:1259-66.
  30. Molka ZA, Lisinski P, Huber J. Visual biofeedback exercises for improving bodybalance control after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. J Phys Ther Sci. 2015; 27:2357-2360.
  31. TN Brown, SG McLean, Palmieri-Smith R. Associations between lower limb muscle activation strategies and resultant multi-planar knee kinetics during single leg landings. J Sci Med Sport. 2014;17(4):408-13.
  32. Myer G, Ford K, McLean S, Hewett T. The effects of plyometric versus dynamic stabilization and balance training on lower extremity biomechanics. Am J Sports Med. 2006; 34:445–55.
  33. Asadi A, Saez E, Arazi H. The effects of plyometric type neuromuscular training on postural control performance of male team basketball payers. J Strength & Condition Res. 2015;29(7):1870–5.